Short-Term Emergency Commitment Laws Require Police to Assess Symptoms of Mental Illness

By Leslie Allen, JD

On November 20, 2014, the Public Health Law Research program released a new 50-state dataset analyzing state law governing the short-term emergency commitment process. These laws give law enforcement officers and others the right to involuntarily admit someone into a mental health care facility if they are in danger of harming themselves or others because of a mental illness.

In 47 states, police may take a person into custody without a warrant, and may initiate an emergency psychiatric hold – essentially committing them to a mental health institution without their consent. Recently, the media has increasingly examined how the police interact with the mentally ill (for example, “Police Taught to Spot Signs of Psychiatric Crisis” from FoxNews, republishing from the  Associated Press, “Police Confront Rising Number of Mentally Ill Suspects” from The New YorkTimes, and see “Where the Police are Part of Mental-Health Care” from The Atlantic). Much of the police forces’ relationship with the mentally ill is established by the laws governing civil commitment.

Police officers serve as first responders for mental health crisis treatment by legislation in nearly every state. Continue reading

Medical Marijuana Delivery May Not Be As “Eazy” As It Seems

By Arielle Lusardi, BA, JD/MPH (’17)

As state medical marijuana laws proliferate throughout the country, companies are trying to secure their own piece of the action. In July 2014, a San Francisco-based start-up company, called Eaze, launched a mobile application that facilitates the delivery of medical marijuana in California. Continue reading

Being Blunt About Product Safety: The problems with the lack of uniformity in medical marijuana laws

By Holly Jones, BA, JD candidate

How can the federal government ensure consumer safety in an industry that distributes a substance the federal government classifies as an illegal drug? The federal government effectively banned the use of marijuana nationwide with the Controlled Substance Act of 1970, classifying marijuana as a Schedule I substance according. Regardless of this federal prohibition, 23 states and Washington, DC have legalized marijuana for medical use. A lack of federal legalization allows states to independently enact their own distinct medical marijuana laws.

In a dataset released yesterday on, the distinctions become clear — there are currently 24 variations of medical marijuana program product safety guidelines in the United States, some of which bear little, if any, resemblance to one another. While some states, like Connecticut and Massachusetts, provide incredibly comprehensive guidelines for their medical marijuana programs, others provide skeletal legislation and instead grant a great deal of autonomy to local jurisdictions.

While variation may allow researchers to more effectively evaluate the approaches, from a patient-safety perspective, uniformity has its advantages. Continue reading

McCullen and New York Statewide Coalition: The Erosion of Public Health as a Legal Norm

At first glance, last Thursday’s decisions by the Supreme Court in McCullen v. Coakley and the New York Court of Appeals in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, have little in common. McCullen, which struck down a Massachusetts law establishing a 35 foot buffer zone around reproductive health clinics, was a First Amendment case that dealt with the always contentious issue of abortion. In contrast, N.Y. Statewide Coalition, which upheld a lower court decision striking down a regulation of the New York City Board of Health barring the sale of large portions of sugary soda, was decided on state administrative law grounds, with the court finding that the Board exceeded its authority.

On closer inspection, however, the two cases share several features in addition to their date of decision. One is the failure to give substantial weight to the state’s interest in protection health. In his opinion for the Court in McCullen, Chief Justice Roberts accepted that the buffer zone law was content neutral and therefore not subject to strict scrutiny. Nevertheless, a unanimous Court held that the Massachusetts law was not narrowly tailored to serve the government interests of protecting public safety and access to health care. In reaching this decision, the Court focused on the “toll” that the buffer zone placed on the abortion opponents who tried to dissuade woman from having abortion, rather than the impact of the lack of such a zone on woman seeking reproductive health care. Equally important, the Court showed no willingness to defer to the state’s contentions that alternative regulatory approaches had proved unsatisfactory. Rather the Court insisted that given “the vital First Amendment interests at stake, it is not enough for Massachusetts simply to say that other approaches have not worked.”

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A Tale of Two Polities (Revisited)

By Hosea H. HarveyPh.D., JD

About a year ago, my colleague Scott Burris blogged on this forum about the two polities of public health that compete for our visions – one view sees public health as “incredibly popular with citizens and lawmakers” and the other as the despised “nanny state.” Burris suggested that the former view is largely the truth, but the latter view is driving budgets and policymaking. His action plan centered on mobilizing public support for public health initiatives rooted in sound science, and engaging battles over public health law budgets and lawmaking. To do so, he recommended, among other things: a) that ideological or economic arguments against public health initiatives be challenged with data and science, including collaborations with state public health agencies, b) that legislators be supported more vigorously with real public opinion data and evidence, and c) improved normative work by law professors to develop a proactive intellectual, cultural, and political framework to evaluate, and perhaps influence, public health law interventions.

With respect to my own area of expertise, three recent developments seem designed to provide responses to Burris’s clarion call. First, the LawAtlas policy surveillance web portal has expanded significantly over the past year and has become a one-stop shop for public health law advocates and lawmakers to objectively evaluate existing public health law interventions and to learn about key elements of such laws. LawAtlas, as readers of this blog know, has expanded from an initial public health law surveillance of four broad public health law regimes to more than 20 datasets covering laws at a variety of levels – some statewide, as in my work on youth sports TBI laws, and some at a county or community-level such as the Seattle and King County public health law surveillance tool, which tracks policies adopted by local governments, public sector institutions, and private organizations in King County, Washington. My own policy surveillance portal, which has been substantially revised and re-launched this week, is one tool that contributes data to conversations that can too often be overrun by politics and emotion. Whether on LawAtlas, or in other forums, perhaps countering political noise with raw data will help reduce the level of misinformation in this policy space and promote a more reinvigorated evidence-based approach to public health lawmaking.

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National Conference on HIV Criminalization

By Sterling Johnson, JD

Grinnell College in Iowa will host the first National Conference on HIV Criminalization next week, June 2-5 on its campus.

One of the stated goals of the conference will be to discuss the recent legislative changes in Iowa and how to apply the lessons to other states with laws that apply specifically to people with HIV.

Currently, 43 states criminalize actions by HIV-positive individuals. Check out our map at for more details.

US states with HIV criminalization laws

In 2009, Iowa became the center of this battle when Nick Rhoades, who is HIV-positive, had a one-time sexual encounter with another man, Adam Plendl. Three months after, Mr. Rhoades was arrested on suspicion of engaging in intimate contact without disclosing his HIV-positive status. At the time of the sexual encounter, he used a condom, had an undetectable viral load and his sexual partner did not contract HIV; however, Nick Rhoades was sentenced to 25 years in prison and classified as a sex offender. The case is now is now on appeal and being argued by Lambda Legal. The Iowa court of Appeals affirmed the conviction and the case is now under review by the Iowa Supreme Court. Mr. Rhoades’s case led to community organizers lobbying to reform the HIV criminalization law in Iowa. Continue reading

Research Round-Up: New Publications from the PHLR SciVal Experts Community

In honor of last week’s National Public Health Week, we have a lot of fresh, new PHLR. The latest crop of papers from public health law researchers touch on a number of important points and issues including transportation safety, implementation, tobacco control, and media presentation of public health law. Check out Scott Burris’s brief summaries after the jump!

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Evidence in Policy Innovation

In the last few decades, there has been a broad effort to strengthen the use of evidence-based law as a tool for the promotion of population health. There are two major fronts in the campaign, each essential, and both largely successful, though much work also remains. One aims to increase the quantity and quality of empirical research on the health effects of existing policy choices. The other focuses on how best to get such knowledge into action in the form of policy and practice. In a new PHLR Theory Practice and Evidence paper, Evan Anderson and I draw attention to a third front: the formulation of new legal interventions. Though policy experimentation is inevitable, it has been the subject of relatively little systematic study. For proponents of evidence-based public health law, policy experimentation presents a paradox: if a legal intervention is truly innovative, there will not yet be direct evidence of its impact. Yet direct evidence from policy evaluations is never the only source of research knowledge relevant to a policy decision, even under conditions of novelty and uncertainty. And few interventions are truly new in a broad sense; in most instances, similarly designed laws have been deployed before, just not for the same specific purpose.

We use the case of youth sports concussion and Washington’s Lystedt Law as a case study of how even new legal strategies dealing with new problems can be built on evidence. We show  how evidence about the problem lawmakers are addressing, combined with widely-used analytic tools like the Haddon Matrix and an understanding of the generic mechanisms through which law influences behavior and outcomes, can bring existing research knowledge into the crafting of even very innovative legal interventions for newly perceived problems.  While we don’t expect the policy sausage factory to suddenly start looking like a research lab, there’s no question that legislators typically care about getting policy right and want evidence.  The point of our paper is to get the research world to think about ways we can help even when no one has yet studied the specific law at issue.

PADs elevator speech

By Jeffrey Swanson, PhD

Effective salespeople often practice something called an “elevator speech,”—a clear, persuasive pitch for their product that’s so succinct they can deliver it on the ride between the lobby and the mezzanine.  Recently I found myself giving exactly such an impromptu presentation, literally on an elevator in a conference hotel in Atlanta, trying to explain to a fellow conferencista the nature and significance of our study with Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams implementing Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) in North Carolina.

“So, there are these legal documents called psychiatric advance directives, or PADs,” I said.  (We were attending the annual conference of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Public Health Law Research Program; she wasn’t a mental health specialist.)  “They’re similar to ‘living wills’ but they’re for people with serious mental illnesses who want to plan ahead for their own treatment during a future mental health crisis.  At a time when they’re feeling well, people can complete a PAD to document their treatment choices and preferences and also appoint someone they trust to make treatment decisions for them.  Ideally, PADs are a ‘recovery tool’ that helps people to obtain treatment they prefer—something that works for them during a mental health crisis—including medication and hospitalization, when needed, but without involuntary commitment. In the meantime, PADs can help clear the lines of communication between the person with mental illness and clinicians and even family members; just the exercise of completing one of these documents can make people feel more in control of their own lives, and give them some peace of mind.”

“Wow!  That’s the best new idea I’ve heard all day,” my elevator-companion responded.  Just then the elevator doors opened on the hotel lobby and the ride was over.  Unfortunately, my speech was just getting started; I guess I’d make a terrible salesperson. But now my new friend seemed interested and didn’t walk away, and so we stood there in the lobby and I kept talking.

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New PHLR (and George) Papers

Laura Brennan, Ross Brownson and Tracey Orleans have come out with an important paper reviewing the evidence on policy and environmental strategies for reducing childhood obesity. Twenty-four strategies and 2000 published and gray literature documents are covered.  This is a menu of more-or-less evidence backed ideas for intervention.

Sam Harper and colleagues come out with an interesting new argument for primary seat belt laws, based on a disparities analysis. Looking through the lens of education level, they  (well, we, since I am one of the authors) find that, while primary enforcement has a powerful affect at every educational level, the impact is greater on people with less education.  Thus, existing SES differentials in seat belt use could be reduced if all states (finally) went to primary enforcement.

Even kids like paternalism?  Well, that may not be the best interpretation of this next study. Williams and McCartt surveyed New Jersey teenagers about three GDL requirements that are unique to that state: minimum licensing age of 17; application of full GDL rules to beginners younger than 21; and requiring license status decals on vehicle plates of GDL drivers.  84% liked licensing at 17, and 77% approved applying Gthe rules even to older novices.  The decal policy was approved by only 23% — but a PHLR study showed it works, so I say get used to it.

Two new tobacco law studies round out the week’s harvest.  Heikki et al. map the diffusion of health warning regulations since 1966, showing a big impact of the FCTC. Finally, in a paper that may start some arguments, Kevin Callison and Robert Kaestner report that adult smokers may not be as responsive to cigarette taxes as many believe.  They suggest it will take increases on the order of 100% to get a further 5% reduction in smoking rates.  Well, I’m okay with that.

Over on the George side of things, Peter Jacobson and Wendy Parmet have posted a thoughtful response to Larry Gostin’s Bloomberg commentary in the Hastings Center Report.  They are helping us move away from a habitual application of the paternalism critique and reminding us that public health can play in the democracy sandbox pretty well.

A New Way to Keep Up with New PHLR

This week, PHLR launched its SciVal Experts PHLR Community website.  The core of the site is publications and other information for 300 leading public health law researchers doing empirical evaluations of the impact of laws and legal practices on health. The SciVal system allows visitors to find experts by topic, to trace their institutional and individual networks, and to find the latest publications in the field.

We encourage you to visit the site and explore for yourself, but we’ll also begin periodically sharing batches of publications on this blog.

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Quantitative Analytical Support Needed for Public Health Law Research

The National Program Office (NPO) for Public Health Law Research (PHLR), a nationally recognized program sponsored by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for the evaluation of the health impact of laws and legal practices, seeks a postdoctoral fellow who will provide quantitative analytical support to the PHLR team. The successful candidate holds a Ph.D. with significant experience in quantitative methods and law/health policy or a J.D. with strong quantitative and health policy research skills. The individual will produce empirical papers using the quantitative legal data currently on and provide literature and systematic review support for journal publications, white papers, and grant submissions. This person will become a full member of the NPO for PHLR at the Temple University Beasley School of Law for a period of two years. PHLR staff and affiliated scholars will mentor this person in public health law research methods and provide networking opportunities with leaders in the field of public health law research. The postdoctoral fellow will be required to attend the PHLR Annual Meeting each year.

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New Data on Drug Overdose Law


By Scott Burris

Working with Corey Davis of the Network for Public Health Law, PHLR has completed and posted updated longitudinal datasets of state laws authorizing naloxone distribution and creating “Good Samaritan” immunity for callers reporting a drug overdose to 911. Take a look at

On the theory that an image beats a few hundred words, here’s a report on the state of the law:

George at APHA IV: Happy George

By Scott Burris

This is the last in a series summarizing a panel from the George collaborative of law professors at last week’s APHA meeting. My talk had a smiley icon for a title and a rant for a structure. I wanted to engage the audience with two very general ideas:  that public health legal interventions are popular, and that we are both factually and strategically wrong to buy into the framing of public health law controversies as turning on principled questions of paternalism or tensions between individual rights and collective welfare.

The first is a point I have made in past posts of one kind or another, and that Evan Anderson and I elaborate in our article just published in the Annual Review of Law and Social Science.  In that article, we point to the fact that Rs and Ds have been happily passing laws that regulate our behaviors, our environment and our machines for public health reasons for decades and show no signs of slowing down. In the talk, I also reference the Morain and Mello Health Affairs piece on pro-public-health public opinion. At PHLR, we are working on another aspect of all this, the fact that a lot of the controversy and complaint about “intrusive” measures often dies down once the new behavior is adopted.  We don’t have a paper on this yet, but just ask yourself who misses smoke-filled rooms, transfats, cars without airbags…   And of course, as Mayor Bloomberg makes his exit as the symbol of the local nanny state, it’s worth recalling his poor paterniated charges re-elected him twice.

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George at APHA III

By Scott Burris

One of the themes of what we might call Georgian Legal Scholarship has been the neglect of public health as a core object of government. This is a theme Wendy Parmet set out at length in Populations, Public Health and the Law, and that Renee Landers took up at APHA.

Landers’ timely example was the ACA and its individual mandate, which has been characterized in litigation as a mandate to purchase an “unwanted” product in violation of individual liberty, exceeding Congress’s power under the Commerce Clause, not a valid exercise of Congress’s Taxing Power, and an intrusion on the prerogatives of the States.  The Chief Justice’s opinion in the Supreme Court’s decision in NFIB v. Sebelius, upholding the individual mandate, but declaring the structure of the Medicaid expansion a violation of the Tenth Amendment, provides her many examples of the focus on these legal abstractions. She also points to language from the joint dissent that indicates the same limited perspective.   Absent from the opinions was acknowledgment of the significant public health problems—human suffering—that the ACA was designed to address.  As she sees it, a focus on abstractions over lived experience has resulted in millions of intended beneficiaries of the ACA being left out of the Medicaid expansion because 26 states have taken advantage of the ability to opt out of the Medicaid expansion.

Landers argued that this was not a problem confined to the ACA case. Courts have reasoned in similar ways in recent public health preemption, First Amendment and abortion cases, showing a disregard for real human situations or scientific and economic evidence.   To her, these recent examples echo the approach of the courts in the early part of the twentieth century when the Lochner case defined judicial review of economic and public health regulation, as Wendy Parmet has discussed in Populations, Public Health, and the Law.  Public health lawyers and scholars, she concluded, must work to demonstrate for courts that role of economic regulation in promoting the public health, elevate the concerns of real people above legal abstractions, and lift the mask on punitive measures masquerading as public health laws.

Tomorrow: Happy George

George at APHA II

By Scott Burris

(Second in a series of posts on the George Project session at APHA last week.)

Lindsay Wiley, who has been writing some interesting stuff lately about the democratic foundations of public health, used her talk to discuss Building and Honoring Coalitions in Controversial Times. Part of the George discussion has been directed to changing the public health law conversation from a set of complaints about setbacks to an exploration of new possibilities.  In thinking about the pivot from challenges to opportunities, Wiley has been focusing on opportunities to protect and strengthen coalitions across progressive advocacy communities and with other potential allies.

This issue arises in a range of contexts: from health and environmental issues surrounding food production, marketing, and labeling to employers’ and private health plans’ efforts to cut costs by providing incentives for healthy behavior. Wiley’s presentation focused on recent tensions between public health advocates and civil rights, anti-poverty, and anti-hunger groups. Within the public health community, she argued, we in public health law tend to automatically see public health goals as compatible with broader social justice goals. We claim social justice as the moral foundation of public health practice and advocacy.  But over the last few years – intensifying in the last several months – that synergy has been threatened.

Wiley discussed three recent controversies: the soda industry’s framing of the legal challenge to the NYC soda portion rule as a civil rights issue; anti-hunger and anti-poverty groups’ vehement opposition to proposed restrictions on the use of SNAP benefits to purchase unhealthy foods and beverages; and opposition to primary enforcement seatbelt laws based on concerns about racial profiling. Wiley’s examination of these events suggests that in some instances, the public health community needs to work more closely with civil rights and anti-poverty groups to promote a more progressive, ecological approach to public health issues and to make the case for health disparities as a civil rights and anti-poverty issue (rather than simply claiming civil rights or anti-poverty as public health issues). In other instances, public health advocates may be picking the wrong battles altogether, siding with groups who want to penalize socially and economically disadvantaged communities without working to facilitate healthier options in those communities. But in some instances, public health advocates have been able to forge compromises that result in a true win-win: promoting public health goals while also achieving reforms in other areas.

Like Wendy Parmet’s talk, described yesterday, Lindsay Wiley’s challenges the comfortable notion that public health is automatically given credit for its high moral standards and good social intentions. She doesn’t say we can’t occupy the moral high ground, but we may have to work harder to get there, and she has some practical ideas about how to do it.

Tomorrow: Renee Landers’s talk.

George at APHA I

By Scott Burris

The “George Project” is a loose collaborative of law professors working to promote the fair and effective use of law for public health. It has been described here. Last week, four George participants formed a panel to report on their intellectual adventures in the sometimes dicey world of public health law.  This week, I will report on their comments in a series of posts.

Wendy Parmet’s presentation, Beyond Paternalism: Public Health as Preemption, began by noting the agreement among George collaborators on the need to respond to the normative attacks being waged against public health laws. At the moment, the most salient of these is the “nanny-state critique,” which condemns public health law as inappropriately paternalistic. After reviewing some of the responses that scholars have offered to that charge, Parmet focused on the one recently proposed by fellow Georgians Lindsay Wiley and Micah Berman (and Doug Blanke) — namely that we need to frame public health as a manifestation of the democratic process. Parmet developed that theme by arguing that public health law is not simply a restriction of liberty, as the nanny-state critique presumes; it is also a manifestation of citizens’ positive liberty to self-govern. Or, to put it another way, public health law is the product of citizens exercising their rights to self-governance to provide the conditions by which they can be healthy.

After suggesting that public health can be viewed as an exercise of self-governance, Parmet looked briefly at two recent public health law cases. New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. N.Y.C. Department of Health, 110 A.D. 3d 1 (N.Y. App. Div. 2013), struck down New York City’s ban on large sugary sodas. Cleveland v. Ohio, 989 N.E.2d 1072 (Ohio. App. 2013), struck down an Ohio state law designed to preempt a Cleveland ordinance banning trans fats. In comparing the two cases, Parmet focused on the fact that the court in the New York case emphasized what it saw as the overreaching of a public health agency; in the Ohio case, the court noted that the state was improperly undermining the power of the city council to protect the health of Cleveland’s citizens. Although these are only two state law cases that depend on the particularities of state law, Parmet asked whether the fact that the New York City regulation emerged from an administrative agency without legislative support while the Cleveland ordinance was enacted by the city’s council was significant? Could it be that laws that emerge from a democratic process are more secure than equally paternalistic administrative regulations? More broadly, might the paternalism critique be masking a discomfort with the bureaucracy, expertise, and the administrative state?

Parmet concluded by arguing the public health needs to look in the mirror. Have we in public health undermined our own cause by treating public health law as a technical tool that experts can apply to achieve scientifically-validated outcomes? In so doing, have we lost sight of the fact that public health law is or should be a tool that citizens can use to improve the health of their own communities?

My own talk, which I will describe in a later post, was also about how public health is popular, but in the less profound sense of that word.  What I really liked about this panel, and Wendy Parmet’s talk exemplified this, was the willingness not only to point out how courts and commentators are neglecting the democratic roots of public health, but also how we in public health may be settling for overly simplified (and empirically false) explanations for our legal and political setbacks.

Tomorrow: Lindsey Wiley’s talk.

Avoiding the Crash: New research on fatality rates for cyclists and pedestrians in distracted driving crashes

By Jacqueline Jefferson, BS (’14), Temple University Department of Public Health

Today it seems impossible for drivers to keep both hands on the steering wheel and eyes on the road, with all the technology that is available to us, temptation is at its best. Somewhere along the road our eyes look down at a text message or our hands wander to program the GPS — both distract us from the task at hand: driving. There are laws being enacted all over the country to curb distracted driving (such as the one just recently passed in Maryland) but, there are other factors in this issue. The question also becomes about whether our roads and communities are protecting pedestrians and bicyclists — in other words, how are we protecting the people who do not have four sides of steel protecting them from injury?

Let’s take a closer look at the problem. A study published this week in Public Health Reports by PHLR grantee Fernando Wilson, PhD, examines victims of fatal distracted driving crashes and shows that fatality rates of motorist victims of distracted driving crashes are falling while fatalities of pedestrian and bicyclist distracted driving crashes substantially increased from 2005 to 2010. Continue reading

Another Legislative Win for Opioid Death Prevention

By Scott Burris

The rising public and legislative awareness of opioid overdose has been a case study in the twists and turns of culture, risk perception and the role of evidence in policy making. An interesting case study, which does not mean I understand what happened or why.

I first got involved in overdose through Dan Abrahamson, the Legal Director at the Drug Policy Alliance. This was back in 1999 or 2000, and a group of drug researchers and drug policy people convened a meeting in Seattle to discuss the chronic, neglected problem of overdose among heroin users.  There were a few health people who were highly aware of the human and economic costs, and the scale of the problem. Karl Sporer, a San Francisco ER doc, was one of the few publishing on the problem. One of the interesting ideas discussed at the meeting was distributing naloxone, the standard antidote for opioid overdose, directly to heroin users. New Mexico, which had the nation’s highest OD death rates, was trying it as a way to deal with the great distances that divided rural heroin users from EMS assistance. With Joanna Norland and Brian Edlin, I ended up writing an analysis of the legality of distributing this prescription drug to drug users.

In the next few years, led by people like Dan Bigg of the Chicago Recovery Alliance, needle exchange programs in urban areas began naloxone programs. They were spurred in 2006 when several US cities experienced an epidemic of overdose tied to the adulteration of the heroin supply with a synthetic opioid, fentanyl. By May, 2009, 57 naloxone programs were operating in 17 U.S. states.  That year, DPA funded a group of scientists and practitioners to brainstorm on how to increase drug users’ access to this life-saving intervention.  Continue reading

Bargaining Chips

By Scott Burris

Christopher Robertson recently posted here a semi-facetious suggestion of things that Democrats could ask for once the shut-down and the debt-ceiling dance turns into real bargaining. (How sad that this has to be seen as an optimistic statement.)  That’s a good idea. I think we should all join in populating the health policy wishlist.  Here’s one no-brainer.

Government is being starved, and taxes are going to have to go up somewhere.  There is no kind of tax that is not being hated on by somebody, and so no easy places to go, but there is such a strong case for raising alcohol taxes.  Alex Wagenaar, one of the greatest alcohol policy researchers we’ve produced in this country, makes a fantastic pitch for substantial increases in this short video, which is great for advocacy or teaching use.  In real terms, alcohol prices have not been lower for decades, while each drink comes with a subsidy of nearly $2 in health and health care costs we tax-payers end up paying.

So, Mr. President, how about a federal tax of $1.90 per drink, indexed to inflation.  And if there’s opposition, threaten to leave the government open!