The Future of “Country of Origin” Labeling Regulations

By Ching-Fu Lin

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District Columbia Circuit recently ruled against the meat industry’s challenge to stop the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) implementation of the amended Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) rules.  The current COOL regulations (amended in May 2013) require retailers to identify several types of information on beef, pork, and poultry products that were previously not required.  It now requires labeling of the country where the animals were born, raised, and slaughtered along with the prohibition of the commingling of meat muscle cuts from different origins.

The old and less stringent version of the COOL regulations was published in 2009 by the USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) based on the 2008 Farm Bill (Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008) amending the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946.  In the same year, Canada and Mexico brought a case in front of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), arguing that the old COOL requirements violated relevant WTO rules.  The WTO DSB found that the old COOL requirements were inconsistent with the US’s obligations under Article 2.1 (national treatment principle) of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) as well as Article X:3(a) (uniform, impartial, and reasonable administration) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1994).

Continue reading

Liveblog of 4/2 panel in European Bio-patent Law, Part III

Third up is Dr. Maaike van der Kooij, discussing medical use claims at the EPO.

In general, methods of medical treatment aren’t patentable under Art. 53(c) of the EPC, but the way around is to claim a relevant product either for medical use (if the substance is known but not medically used (Art. 54(4)) or for a specific medical use (Art. 54(5)).  (From my point of view, this seems like another way that the EPO is trying to address its innovation mandate by working around what appears to be pretty clear language in the EPC, a pattern which we certainly see in the US in both PTO and Federal Circuit practice). Continue reading

Liveblog of 4/2 panel on Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law, Part II

Next up is Dr. Anja Schmitt, comparing Myriad and Mayo to EPO practice, and describing gene patents and diagnostic method patents in the EPO.

Human gene patents

The basic question of human gene patents–as will be familiar to those who followed the Myriad litigation–is whether isolated DNA is a product of nature/mere discovery, or a man-made product with technical character.  In the Myriad case, claims covered isolated DNAs for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which are useful for identifying a predisposition to breast cancer.

At the EPO, on the other hand–using the same sources of law as Dr. Nichogiannopoulou mentioned before–genes are patentable as long as they disclose the industrial applicability and the function of the gene and/or its encoded protein. Continue reading

Liveblog of 4/2 panel on Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law, Part I

I’ll be liveblogging today’s panel on Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law (co-sponsored by the Broad Institute), with several guest speakers from the European Patent Office (EPO).

Ben Roin, Heiken Assistant Professor of Patent Law here at HLS, is moderating.  Speakers will be Dr. Aliki Nichogiannopoulou on stem cells, and Dr. Anja Schmitt on gene patents, Dr. Maiake van der Kooij, all of the EPO, followed by Tom Kowalski of VedderPrice.

Dr. Nichogiannopolou begins by talking about stem cells, and opens with a few background points about the EPO.  The agency has its own implementing legislation separate from the EU, and includes 38 member states – 10 more than the EU itself, including industry-important Switzerland.  The EPO supports innovation, competitiveness, and economic growth for the benefits of European citizens, and has the mandate to grant European patents for inventions. Continue reading

TOMORROW: Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law: Stem Cells, Genes, and More

Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law: Stem Cells, Genes, and More

April 2, 2014, 12:00 PM

Langdell, Vorenberg Classroom – North (225), Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA

Please join us for this esteemed panel of leading patent experts, including members of the European Patent Office. Discussion will address U.S. and European perspectives on patenting stem cells, genes, and medical uses, as well as other ethical and legal issues.

Panelists:

  • Aliki Nichogiannopoulou, Director, Biotechnology, EPO
  • Anja Schmitt, Examiner, EPO
  • Maaike van der Kooij, Examiner, EPO
  • Tom Kowalski, US Patent Attorney
  • Moderator: Benjamin N. Roin, Hieken Assistant Professor in Patent Law, Harvard Law School; Co-Director, Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology & Bioethics; Associate Member, Broad Institute

This event is free and open to the public, but space is limited and registration is required. Register here.

Lunch will be served. For questions, contact petrie-flom@law.harvard.edu or 617-496-4662.

Cosponsored by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

China Issues 2014-2020 Development Blueprint on Food and Nutrition

By Ching-Fu Lin

China’s highest executive organ, the State Council, put out the Food and Nutrition Development Outline 2014-2020 (the Outline) in February of 2014.  The Outline was jointly drafted by China’s Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) and National Health and Family Planning Commission.  The Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Science and Technology, and National Development and Reform Commission also participated in its development.  Based on a review of China’s growth and problems in food and nutrition, the Outline sets a seven-year plan that highlights basic policy objectives.  The areas of focus are food supply systems, nutrition intake and balance (especially amongst population sub-groups), regulatory and surveillance mechanisms, industry development, research, and education.

The Outline lays out its “guiding strategy” that the government should regard the effective supply of food, balanced nutritional profile, and production-consumption coordination as its chief missions.  To execute these missions, the government identifies certain key products (quality agricultural products, convenient processed foods, and dairy and soy foods), key areas (poor, rural, and newly urbanized areas), and key population groups (the pregnant women and nursing mothers, infants and children, and the elderly) as starting points to promote better food and nutrition development patterns.  Such points are further elaborated in the document.  The guiding strategy ultimately aims to improve public health and a well-off society.

Continue reading

4/2: Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law: Stem Cells, Genes, and More

Hot Topics in European Bio-Patent Law: Stem Cells, Genes, and More

April 2, 2014, 12:00 PM

Langdell, Vorenberg Classroom – North (225), Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA

Please join us for this esteemed panel of leading patent experts, including members of the European Patent Office. Discussion will address U.S. and European perspectives on patenting stem cells, genes, and medical uses, as well as other ethical and legal issues.

Panelists:

  • Aliki Nichogiannopoulou, Director, Biotechnology, EPO
  • Anja Schmitt, Examiner, EPO
  • Maaike van der Kooij, Examiner, EPO
  • Tom Kowalski, US Patent Attorney
  • Moderator: Benjamin N. Roin, Hieken Assistant Professor in Patent Law, Harvard Law School; Co-Director, Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology & Bioethics; Associate Member, Broad Institute

This event is free and open to the public, but space is limited and registration is required. Register here.

Lunch will be served. For questions, contact petrie-flom@law.harvard.edu or 617-496-4662.

Cosponsored by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

Call for applications: Brocher Summer Academy 2014: Ethical Choices for DALYs and the Measurement of the Global Burden of Disease

Confirmed speakers: Christopher Murray (IHME)—Keynote, Matt Adler (Duke), Greg Bognar (La Trobe U), John Broome (Oxford), Dan Brock (Harvard), Richard Cookson (York U), Owen Cotton-Barratt (Oxford), David Evans (WHO), Marc Fleurbaey (Princeton U), Ned Hall (Harvard), Dan Hausman (U of Wisconsin, Madison), Elselijn Kingma (U of Eindhoven), Jeremy Lauer (WHO), Colin Mathers (WHO), Erik Nord (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo), Ole Norheim (U of Bergen), Andreas Reis (WHO), Joshua Salomon (Harvard and IHME), Abha Saxena (WHO), Erik Schokkaert (KU Leuven), Drew Schroeder (Claremont McKenna), Alex Voorhoeve (LSE), James Woodward (U of Pittsburgh).

Organizers: Daniel Wikler (Harvard), Nir Eyal (Harvard), Samia Hurst (U of Geneva)

The biennial Summer Academy in the Ethics of Global Population Health is hosted by the Brocher Foundation on the shores of Lake Geneva June 9-13 2014, introducing faculty and advanced graduate students to population‐level bioethics. This fast‐developing academic field addresses ethical questions in population‐ and global health rather than ones in individual patient care.

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project is a systematic, scientific effort to quantify the comparative magnitude of health loss due to diseases, injuries, and risk factors. From its inception in the early 1990s, scientists and philosophers recognized that ethical and philosophical questions arise at every turn. For example, it must be decided whether each year in the lifespan is to count alike, and whether future deaths and disabilities should be given the same weight as those in the present. These choices and decisions matter: the share of disease burden due to myocardial infarction could vary as much as 400% depending on what position is adopted on two of the ethical choices described in the GBD 2010 report.  Continue reading

FDA’s Draft Methodological Approach to Identifying High-Risk Foods

By Ching-Fu Lin

Last month, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a draft methodological approach for designating high-risk foods (HRFs) as required by section 204(d)(2) of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).  HRFs identified by the FDA are subject to additional record-keeping requirements, and more frequent foreign inspections and mandatory third-party certification requirements.  The FDA is seeking comments, scientific data, and information from stakeholders to revise this draft HRF approach and to create a preliminary HRF list.

Among many available risk tools (e.g. qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative methods), a semi-quantitative risk ranking model has been selected by the FDA as the most appropriate methodology for the HRF list.  There are many reasons for choosing this model, including the fact that – as explained by the FDA – it is “data-driven and comprehensive, using explicit criteria related to public health risk; … adaptive to a variety of hazards; and … flexible to consider different foods or categories of food.”

Based on the draft semi-quantitative risk ranking model, the FDA is considering and evaluating a set of seven criteria that match the factors specified in section 204(d)(2)(A) of FSMA: Continue reading

FSMA Conference Part 5: International Issues and Trade Implications

[Ed. Note: On Friday, February 21, the Petrie-Flom Center, the Food Law and Policy Clinic (a division of the Center for Health Law and Policy Innovation), the Food Law Lab, and the Harvard Food Law Society (with support from the Top University Strategic Alliance and the Dean's Office at Harvard Law School) co-sponsored a conference at HLS called "New Directions for Food Safety: The Food Safety Modernization Act and Beyond."  This is the final installment in a series of blog posts from the event; video will follow shortly.]

Continue reading

TOMORROW: “The Right to Life and the Inter American Court of Human Rights”

“The Right to Life and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”

When: March 5, 2014, 12:00-1:00 p.m.

Where: Wasserstein Hall 3007, Harvard Law School, 1585 Massachusetts Ave.

Please join us for a brown bag talk with Professor Paola Bergallo, Faculty of Law, Universidad de San Andrés, Buenos Aires, and HRP Visiting Fellow. Bergallo served as an expert witness in the landmark case Artavia Murillo et al. (“In Vitro Fertilization”) v. Costa Rica, which discusses human rights definitions regarding the right to life, among other health and human rights matters. Professor Gerald Neuman of Harvard Law School will moderate.

This event is being co-sponsored by Harvard Law Students for Reproductive Justice and HLS Advocates for Human Rights.

Capsule Endoscopy Instead of Colonoscopy? The FDA Approves the PillCam COLON

By Jonathan J. Darrow

In January, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the PillCam COLON 2 as a minimally-invasive means of viewing the colon, a development that is sure to be welcomed by U.S. patients who currently undergo an estimated 14 million colonoscopies each year.  While the approval represents a major step forward, the PillCam is unlikely to supplant current procedures just yet.

The colon has traditionally been examined via optical colonoscopy, a procedure perceived by many to be uncomfortable and embarrassing that involves insertion through the rectum of a 5-6 foot long flexible tube as part of an examination that can take 30 to 60 minutes. Air must be pumped in through the rectum in a process called “insufflation.” Sedatives and pain medication are generally used to help relieve discomfort. In contrast, the PillCam COLON contains a power source, light source, and two tiny cameras encapsulated in an easy-to-swallow pill that produces no pain or even sensation as it moves through the colon. Reflecting the absence of discomfort, one report from a clinical researcher noted that a few patients have insisted on X-rays to confirm that the device had passed in their stool (FDA Consumer). The pill takes about 30,000 pictures before passing naturally from the body, which usually occurs before the end of its 10-hour battery life.

The safety record of capsule endoscopy, the category to which the PillCam COLON belongs, so far appears to compare favorably with the alternatives. Capsule endoscopy may be less likely to produce accidental colonic perforations or other serious complications, which occur in less than 1% of traditional colonoscopies despite the best efforts of the treating physician. Tears of the colon wall can in turn “rapidly progress to peritonitis and sepsis, carrying significant morbidity and mortality.” (Adam J. Hanson et al., Laparoscopic Repair of Colonoscopic Perforations: Indications and Guidelines, 11 J. Gastrointest. Surg. 655, 655 (2007)). Splenic injury or other serious complications also occur rarely with optical colonoscopies. Unlike “virtual colonoscopy,” which uses computed tomography (CT) to peer into the body, capsule endoscopy does not involve bombarding the body with radiation. A leading study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported no serious adverse events among 320 subjects given the PillCam COLON, and concluded that use of the device was “a safe method of visualizing the colonic mucosa through colon fluids without the need for sedation or insufflation.” Continue reading

Global Health Governance: Call for Submissions

Global Health Governance will be publishing a special issue on a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) in December 2014. The proposal for an FCGH would create a new international framework, grounded in the international human right to health, that would support health at the national and global levels.

For this FCGH special issue, Global Health Governance invites submission of theoretical and empirical policy research articles that examine and analyze how the FCGH could improve health through improved governance and realization of the right to health. We have particular interest in articles on: Continue reading

Review of Minssen, “Assessing the Inventiveness of Biopharmaceuticals under the European and U.S. Patent Laws”

Harold C. Wegner reviews Petrie-Flom Visiting Scholar Timo Minssen‘s doctoral thesis. From the review:
Patent applicants seeking to gain global patent protection beyond their home country borders need a better comparative knowledge of key elements of the patent laws of the several countries. Professor Timo Minssen in his superb doctoral thesis directly challenges the seemingly identical statutory and treaty standards for patentability in Europe and the United States in his comparative study of the laws of Europe and the United States with respect to the treaty standard of an “inventive step.” Timo Minssen, ASSESSING THE INVENTIVENESS OF BIOPHARMACEUTICALS UNDER THE EUROPEAN AND U.S. PATENT LAWS (Goteborg, Sweden: Ineko AB 2012). Professor Minssen’s doctoral thesis represents required reading for anyone seeking to unmask the subtle differences between American and European practice (emphasis added).
Read the full review.

FSMA Conference Part 2: FSMA and Risk Regulation Strategy

[Ed. Note: On Friday, the Petrie-Flom Center, the Food Law and Policy Clinic (a division of the Center for Health Law and Policy Innovation), the Food Law Lab, and the Harvard Food Law Society (with support from the Top University Strategic Alliance and the Dean's Office at Harvard Law School) co-sponsored a conference at HLS called "New Directions for Food Safety: The Food Safety Modernization Act and Beyond."  This week, we will be sharing a series of blog posts from the event, and video will follow shortly.]

After Peter Hutt’s teriffic keynote speech, our first panel addresses the Food Safety Modernization Act and risk regulation strategies.  The speakers are Professor Jake Gersen of Harvard Law School, Director of the Food Law Lab, and Professor Michael Roberts, Founding Executive Director of UCLA Law School’s Resnick Center on Food Law and Policy. Continue reading

TOMORROW: “New Directions in Food Safety” conference at Harvard Law School

This one-day conference will bring together experts in food law and regulation to discuss a range of issues including food safety, agriculture, risk regulation strategy, and international issues.

Speakers are:

  • Keynote: Peter Barton Hutt, Harvard Law School/Covington & Burling
  • Alli Condra, Food Law and Policy Clinic, Harvard Law School
  • Marsha Echols, Howard University School of Law
  • Jacob E. Gersen, Food Law Lab, Harvard Law School
  • Lewis Grossman, Washington College of Law, American University
  • Ching-Fu Lin, Petrie-Flom Center, Harvard Law School
  • Sharon Mayl, Senior Advisor for Policy, FDA Office of Foods and Veterinary Medicine
  • Kuei-Jung Ni, Petrie-Flom Center, Harvard Law School/Institute for Technology Law, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
  • Margot Pollans, Resnick Food Law and Policy Program, UCLA School of Law
  • Michael Roberts, Resnick Food Law and Policy Program, UCLA School of Law
  • Denis Stearns, Seattle University School of Law
  • Stephanie Tai, University of Wisconsin School of Law

For the full agenda, including paper titles, please visit our website.

This event is free and open to the public, but space is limited and registration is required. To register, please click here.

For questions contact petrie-flom@law.harvard.edu or 617-496-4662.

Sponsored by the Petrie-Flom Center; the Food Law and Policy Clinic (a division of the Center for Health Law and Policy Innovation); the Food Law Lab; and the Harvard Food Law Society; with support from the Top University Strategic Alliance and the Dean’s Office at Harvard Law School.

Kevin Outterson on the Search for New Antibiotics

Kevin Outterson appeared on NPR’s “Here & Now” to discuss the growing problem of antibiotic resistance and possible ways to incentivize development of new antibiotics. From the interview:

On the misuse of antibiotics

“We should think of this as a global resource that needs to be conserved and taken care of. So antibiotics should never be used inappropriately. In the country right now, we have something on the order of 23 million people who are getting antibiotics for ear aches. Most of those situations would resolve on their own in a couple of days. We also give antibiotics many times for people just because they have some sort of a common cold — it’s estimated 18 million prescriptions a year — doesn’t help anyone who has the common cold. It’s a complete waste.”

On the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

“It’s frightened people for more than a decade. You mentioned at the top the 23,000 Americans who are dying from resistant infections. The CDC said on top of that, there’s another 14,000 dying from a horrible disease, intestinal disease, called Clostridium difficile [C-diff] in the United States. Together, that’s larger than the number of people who die in this country each year from AIDS. And we’re not — as bad as things are now, the more troubling aspects, or what might happen in five or 10 years if some sort of a pathogen was resistant to everything we had got out to the population. It sounds like a Hollywood movie.”

You can listen to the full interview here.

TOMORROW: Patents without Patents: Regulatory Incentives for Innovation in the Drug Industry

February 19, 2014 12:00 PM Wasserstein Hall 1015
1585 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge

In the pharmaceutical industry, patents are the preeminent incentive for innovation in developing new drugs.  But patents aren’t the whole story; regulatory agencies also offer different forms of exclusivity—enforced by the agencies themselves—to encourage different forms of innovation in the industry.  This panel will discuss actual and potential roles for those rewards in the context of developing new drugs, new uses for old drugs, and new ways to make drugs, in both the United States and the European Union. Panelists include:

  • Benjamin N. Roin, Hieken Assistant Professor in Patent Law, Harvard Law School; Faculty Co-Director, the Petrie-Flom Center
  • W. Nicholson Price II, Academic Fellow, the Petrie-Flom Center
  • Timo Minssen, Associate Professor, University of Copenhagen Faculty of Law; Visiting Scholar, the Petrie-Flom Center
  • Moderator, Aaron Kesselheim, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director of the Program On Regulation, Therapeutics, And Law (PORTAL), Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

This event is free and open to the public. Lunch will be served. For questions, contact petrie-flom@law.harvard.edu or  617-495-2316.

 

More on drug quality: India

The New York Times had a troubling piece this weekend about major problems in drug quality in India, where FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg is visiting to discuss safety issues. India makes 40% of the U.S.’s generic prescription and over-the-counter drugs.

Quality issues seem to be unfortunately common (though of course there are many top-quality manufacturers and plants as well).  Half of all the FDA’s drug-related warning letters last year were issued to Indian plants, and recently popular drugs (including Neurontin and Cipro) have been banned from the United States if they’re manufactured in India.  Part of the explanation is differing standards for different markets; manufacturing standards are higher for the U.S. than for India, but the same companies are doing the manufacturing, sometimes at the same plants. Problems aren’t just about quality control in the plants – there are also major concerns with fraud.  In a particularly harrowing situation, “One widely used antibiotic was found to contain no active ingredient after being randomly tested in a government lab. The test was kept secret for nearly a year while 100,000 useless pills continued to be dispensed.”

(If you’re interested in pharmaceutical counterfeiting and are in New England, there’s what promises to be a terrific conference on pharmaceutical counterfeiting at UNH School of Law in Concord, NH on February 19 and 20; details are here.) Continue reading

Book Review published on SSRN

Three weeks ago I blogged about my recent review of  ”Pharmaceutical Innovation, Competition and Patent Law – a Trilateral Perspective” (Edward Elgar 2013). The full review, which is forthcoming in a spring issue of European Competition Law Review (Sweet Maxwell), is now available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2396804.