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With this blog we hope to draw attention to the intriguing and remarkably rare items discovered by Harvard Library users during the course of their research. Harvard Library Preservation routinely reviews books returned through circulation, knowing that these returns include a surprising numbers of works that are too deteriorated to survive continued use, and are that too rare and interesting not to share online with the Harvard community, and beyond.

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Mesmerizing

Mesmerism orginated with Franz Anton Mesmer (1734 –1815), a German physician who postulated the theory of natural energetic transference, which occurs in all animated and inanimate objects. The term he used for this energy was “animal magnetism”. Mesmer considered all human illness a breakdown in the balance and flow of this magnetic force. When nature failed to resolve this blockage spontaneously, “mesmerism”could be used to remedy the problem. Mesmerism attracted practitioners and audiences, with its peak between 1780 and 1850. The technique usually involved some social role-playing where the mesmerizer would make suggestions to his clients who eventually became absolutely “mesmerized” by him in some sort of hypnosis-like trance. Mesmer used his extraordinary powers of suggestion to send people into frenzied convulsions, swooning, or sleeplike trances. It was all very ceremonious and dramatic, attracting audiences to observe and participate.

Chauncy Hare Townshend (1798-1868) was a poet who became fascinated with mesmerism during his tour of Germany. He became a enthusiastic supporter for its further study and application in England. Townshend is now mostly know for his collections donated to the Victoria & Albert Museum, but during his lifetime, he was an established literary figure and close friend of Charles Dickens (Great Expectations was dedicated to Townshend). Townshend published a work on mesmerism in 1841 where he acknowledged the worldwide skepticism of the theory, but offered a counter-argument for continued experimentation and examination. To support his quest, he supplied a number of testimonies, including Louis Aggasiz, who participated as a mesmeric subject for Townshend in 1839.

Townshend states:

“The original cause of the ill reception which
mesmerism has met with from the world, is undoubtedly
to be found in the character of its discoverer, Mesmer,
in his want of candour and philosophic strictness.
Had it been introduced to notice by a Newton or an
Arago, by one who would have stated his facts honestly,
and drawn from them none but legitimate conclusions,
the difference of its career may be estimated by
all who are aware how much depends upon a propitious
beginning. But, unfortunately, from the very outset,
mesmerism was associated with the soiling calculations
of self-interest and the errors of an over-heated brain.
Mesmer wished to make a monopoly of that which
should have been the property of all mankind..

…We should lay aside all prejudice,
connected either with the origin, name, or injudicious
exposition of mesmerism, and try the subject,
wholly and impartially, upon its own merits.
Unalarmed by the apparent strangeness and incongruity
of the phenomena to be investigated, we should call
to mind how frequently “appearances of external nature,
puzzling at first sight, and seemingly irreconcilable
with one another, have all been solved and harmonized
by a reference to some one pervading principle”… – Townshend

 

Under “hypnosis”-

Nothing could be more curious than to
see the two sisters sitting opposite to each other, both
with their eyes shut, and yet, by the expression of their
countenances, appearing to look at each other. I now
went away to another part of the room, when Anna
M got up, and walked to just half way between her
sister and myself; but she seemed arrested there by the
attraction of contending forces, and so she remained,
turning from me to her sister, and vice versa, as if she
knew not to which she should go, till I put an end to
this curious scene by returning to my sleepwaker, and
begging her to awake her sister. This, however, she declared
that she could not do, but added, ” The moment that
you awake me, my sister will wake also.”

While mesmerism began a steady decline in popularity in the later part of the 19th century, one practitioner carried on the tradition into the 1880s. D. Younger advertised broadly in newspapers as a mesmerist and healer of various maladies.

“With an experience of nearly forty years as a professional 
practitioner of mesmerism, I publish this work to demonstrate 
the wonderful resources of this science, especially in its 
application to the alleviation of suffering and cure of disease. 
The results I have been able to accomplish by this natural 
method of treatment, in conjunction with the various herbal 
remedies I recommend, have, in many cases, been most surprising, 
never failing to afford relief, and often effecting a 
permanent cure, after all the usual orthodox methods have been 
tried in vain. “

Producing mesmeric sleep

producing a cataleptic state

Breathing into the patient

 

Description:
Townshend, Chauncy Hare. Facts in mesmerism :with reasons for a dispassionate inquiry into it. New-York : Harper & Brothers, 1841.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:11815343
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University
Description:
Younger, D. Full, concise instructions in mesmerism (falsely termed hypnotism), curative magnetism, and massage :with brief hints on natural medicine, etc. : with illustrations showing various phases of mesmeric treatment. [London] : E.W. Allen, [1887?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:2562357
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University
mtauburn1

Family outings at Mt. Auburn Cemetery

 

Life is full of changes ; and Mount Auburn itself is an illustration
of a change. A fairy region it has seemed to the traveller and student,
who have sought its sequestration for the purposes of intellectual
indulgence ; — a terrestrial paradise it has proved to all seekers after
the beautiful in nature; and, so enticing have been its groves, its
scenery and associations, that it received long since, the significant
appellation of  Sweet Auburn”— a name, as yet, unforgotten, though
innovation has been at work, and the favorite resort of the promenading
explorer, the inviting ground of the botanist, the charmed retreat
of the thoughtful student, has become dedicated earth— a consecrated
spot — a rural cemetery — a ” garden of graves !”

 

Mt. Auburn Cemetery is considered a landmark in the history and development of American parks, public spaces, health, burials, and even education. The ambitious nature of the cemetery was the brainchild of one Dr. Jacob Bigelow.  Bigelow, often considered a 19th century Renaissance man, was a doctor, botanist, Harvard professor, author, architect, and the person responsible for popularizing the term of “technology”. Bigelow taught medicine and botany at Harvard and published numerous books, including one of America’s first botanical books, American Medical Botany. His theories and teachings moved medicine away from old traditional methods of bloodletting and purging, and toward the use of safe and less invasive therapeutics. He recognized a growing health concern with overcrowded urban burial grounds and the rapid growth of American cities. Poor planning and traditional burial practices were a major cause of widespread disease, pollution, and even poor mental health. With the help of civic leaders, along with a few landscape gardening enthusiasts, Bigelow proposed the creation of a new kind of burial ground near Boston — a garden cemetery.

The establishment of Mt. Auburn Cemetery in 1831 marked a major departure in the way Americans buried their dead. This cemetery was the first large-scale designed landscape that was not just for burials, monuments, and dedications, but as a space open to the public with a multitude of uses. Mt. Auburn Cemetery set the style for other American cemeteries, but also deeply influenced the approach of public park and garden design, eventually having a direct impact on the creation of New York’s Central Park just a few decades later. Mount Auburn Cemetery provided its visitors with educational recreation, to learn the lives of heroes, appreciate the beauty and mystery of nature, and study architecture and design. It was a popular place for “courtship walks”, contemplative thought, or just simple relief from the frenetic pace of the city. Mt. Auburn became a tourist destination in its own right, similar to a museum, with guidebooks suggesting routes and offering highlights of individual monuments.

This published work by Cornelia Walter (considered to have been the first woman editor of a major newspaper in the United States) provides a description of the cemetery as it appeared in the middle of the 19th century. Walter makes particular emphasis of the cemetery as a place for the nourishment of mind, body, and soul, and James Smillie’s elegant engravings add to the notion.

 

A teaching moment

Admiring the beautiful landscape

An environment for discourse

A place to read with one’s dog.

Description:
Walter, Cornelia W. Mount Auburn illustrated :in highly finished line engraving, from drawings taken on the spot. New York : R. Martin, 1847.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:1386239
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

Thomas Allom (1804–1872) was an English architect, artist, and illustrator, who published books on his travels from Europe to the Middle East and throughout Asia. In 1842, the treaty of Nanking was signed after the British were victorious over the Chinese in what is usually refered to as the “First Opium War”.  The treaty gave the British additional control over Chinese ports, opened trade restrictions, and ceded Hong Kong to British sovereignty. It was during this period of rapid change and increased British presence in China that Thomas Allom published an extravagent 2 volume set on Chinese history and culture. The publication provides a narrative, as well as a mulititude of illustrations on topics such as topography, social customs, history, law and politics. Although Allom traveled extensively, many of his Chinese illustrations were actually based on the works of other artists, including Lieutenant Frederick White, R.M., Captain Stoddart, R.N. and R. Varnham, rather than on his own firsthand accounts in China. The descriptions that accompany Allom’s works reveal the biases and prejudices of the Victorian mindset toward China at the time. Within the second volume, Allom devoted a significant section on aspects of crime in China, including the judicial system and the application of punishment.

Policeman and Prisoner

“The policemen, not enrolled in the military ranks, are described by one, who according to Mr. Montgomery Martin, “has closely studied the subject,” as being “a collection of the very scum of the nation; well versed in all tricks; personaly acquainted with thieves, robbers, and gamblers; initiated in all the mysteries of iniquity; and often partaking largely not only of the bribes, but also in the practice of abomination, in the very haunts of vice.” Their pay is small-from one to two dollars per month; but many serve gratuitously, and some even pay for the appointment -”proof that their situations must be worth something;”

Examination of a Prisoner

“The forms of justice are few and simple. When the police apprehend a Chinese for any offence, he is taken before a magistrate, who is seated at a table (as we see in the engraving.) The prisoner is made to kneel in front of what forms the tribunal of justice—his captor on one side, and another policeman, with the instrument of punishment, on the other. The magistrate has his clerk; but in no case is there either jury or pleading. He hears the witnesses, and passes sentence; intimating the number of blows to be given (if flogging is awarded), by throwing on the ground some of the reeds which are seen in two small boxes at the corner of the tale. If it is an offence punishable by the bamboo, bastinado, or cangue, that punishment is immediately inflicted; if it is more serious, and death or banishment is the sentence, the offender is sent to prison, or to the place of execution.”

Punishment of the Bamboo

“No person in China, whatever his rank, is exempt from the punishment of flogging. As we have stated elsewhere, officers of the army are subject to it. A mandarin who interferes in government matters is fined, and receives besides eighty blows; as does any official who recommends an improper person for promotion; or is guilty of neglect or delay in performing the business of his office. Subordinates of government are examined at the end of each year, and if they are found not to have improved, they receive forty blows. Physicians, who prescribe improperly for their patients, receive one hundred blows; the punishment of domestics for making a noise or disturbance in the imperial palace, is one hundred blows; and their masters (being considered responsible for the behaviour of their servants) receive fifty. The smallest number of blows inflicted is five.”

Punishment of the Rack

“One of the worst features in the criminal procedure of the Chinese is their retention of torture. While religious fanatics and hypocrites have been compelled to lay aside that horrible engine of barbarity, the rack, the Chinese are still permitted to employ it for the purpose of extorting confession; and, as Queen Victoria has interceded for the abolition of death as a punishment of apostasy in Turkey, it is to be hoped she will extend her humane influence to the extinction of an infinitely more cruel practice in China—a country which recent events have taught to respect her power.”

Street Punishment

“The Chinese appear to be fond of public punishments: and we give two engravings, from Chinese drawings in the library of the East India Company, showing two culprits undergoing the sentences awarded by the mandarins. In our first plate there is a group of four figures, all engaged in receiving or administering a penalty awarded, we should say for piracy—when we look at the pigmy banners which are fixed behind the ears of the culprit, being apparently stuck into his head; causing a torture, we should think, at least equal to the flagellation itself. The first figure is striking a gong; this is to call the attention of the public, to whom he announces the crime, and the number of blows with the bamboo the prisoner is to receive. Then follows the prisoner, his hands tied behind him, and his countenance betraying both pain and terror; his feet are bare, and his dress of the thinnest description. The third figure is the flagellator, who brandishes the bamboos, four in number, as if he were intending to lay them on with a will. The fourth figure is a petty mandarin? who has the charge of the prisoner, and is present to see that the punishment is properly inflicted. The ensemble is indicative of an uncivilised and a barbarous regime, little accordant with European habits and modes of thinking in the nineteenth century.”

Street Punishment

“In Plate II, the unhappy culprit is undergoing a species of torture. He is suspended from a cross-pole, supported by two uprights, by a rope passed round his neck and under his arms—his feet being tied together, and drawn up higher than the level of his head, by another. His breast rests on a long bamboo, which is held at each end by a policeman; and it is evident, that by elevating and lowering this pole, letting the prisoner fall upon it each time, the severity of the punishment is greatly increased.”

Description:
China: its scenery, architecture, social habits, &c. illustrated. London : printed and published by the London Printing and Publishing Company, Limited, [1843?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:12136113
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

Eliza Grew Jones, a member of a Baptist missionary to Burma, compiled one of the first known Thai-English dictionaries, completing it in December of 1833.  She was incredibly talented with languages, having even taught herself Greek. She despearately wanted to preach the Gospels, but being a woman, was prohibited. She married missionary Rev. Dr. John T. Jones in 1830, and soon after, sailed for Burma and Siam with the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions. While there, she studied the Thai language, carefully making journal entries of the words, terms, and phrases she learned. In spite of her dedication to this work, it appears that her original dictionary was never published and the wherabouts of her original manuscript is unknown. It is theoroized that the difficulty of printing Thai characters prevented this dictionary from being published. Years later, she created a romanized script of Thai characters to facilitate printing, eventually publishing portions of the Bible in the Thai language. Not long after this accomplishment, Eliza Grew Jones succumbed to Cholera in 1838. All that remains from Jones’ original dictionary is this hand-copied version by Rev. Samuel P. Robbins, completed in May of 1839. This bound manuscript, held by Widener Library, contains more than 8,000 Thai words with English translations, as well as several interesting illustrations. The volume is a unique resource for comparative and historical linguistic research and East-Asian scholarship.

“You will rejoice with me when I tell you
that I have at last finished the Siamese dictionary,
the arrangement and copying of which has been my
chief business in that language, for nearly a year past.
It contains many thousand words, and though it is imperfect,
and will require much correction hereafter, I hope it may be useful”

-Excerpt from Memoir of Mrs. Eliza G. Jones :missionary to Burmah and Siam. Philadelphia : American Baptist Publication Society, 1853.

Eliza Grew Jones entry for the sacred Mount Meru and its surrounding peaks that act like a pair of stairs. According to Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology, Mt. Meru is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes.

 

Description:
Dictionary of the Siamese language containing more than 8000 words : copied from Jones’ latest dictionary : manuscript, 1839.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:4506879
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

It is a common misconception that the automobile was the initial catalyst for the expansion and improvement of the American roadways. In reality, the true impetus for the growth and development of a comprehensive road system was the cycling craze of the late 19th century. The spike in interest and enthusiasm for cycling was due to the introduction of the “safety” bicycle, an advance in design and technology, with equally sized wheels and rubber tires. This innovative bicycle made its appearance across the nation during the years of 1886-88 and was subsequently purchased by millions of American. The safety bicycle was recognized as more comfortable, reliable, and safer for transportation and leisure activities than any of its predecessors. The cycling fad had reached its height by the 1890s, with an estimated 2.5 million riders and the establishment of clubs, fashion-wear, races, parties, and unique jargon. Along with the economic impact of this phenomenon, the various clubs became quite influential politically, seeking significant improvement of existing roadways and a comprehensive plan for building new roads. The “Good Roads Movement”, as it became known at the time, lobbied for greater government involvement at the local, state, and federal levels to collaborate and invest in road infrastructure. According to the Good Roads Movement, the benefits were not for cyclists only, as road improvement would offer farmers more options for transporting produce to markets, resulting in more commerce and greater economic prosperity.

The bicyclists presented a new form of middle-class urban and suburban leisure, with the advent of the “bicycle tour”. Detailed maps and guides were published, catering to the cyclists, pointing out the best roads, local amenities, and highlights. This Massachusetts road book from 1897 is a typical example of the publications being produced at the time. It is described as printed “For the convenience of cyclists and tourists, the books contain an index of towns, showing location, population, and whether they have money order or telegraph offices; also a directory of hotels, bicycle repair shops, etc.” In addition to providing a glimpse into the available roads at that time, the guide also offers fascinating advertisements targeted to the cycling enthusiast.

Kodak’s aim at pairing photography with bicycle touring

shoes2

Ad for a fashionable cycling shoe

The map key for quick access to detailed maps

Description:
The standard road-book, Massachusetts :complete road maps, showing quality of the roads. Boston : National Publ. Co., c1897.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:12111511
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

This short pamphlet, issued after the Americans had entered WWI, was offered as both a humorous and inspirational message to those back on the homefront. The ideals of sacrifice and support for the troops abroad was not limited to the people of the U.S., as Buttons, a poodle from Boston, provided his own small contribution to the war cause. Wool was in constant demand for military and hospital use, and shortages along with high costs were a constant concern for the government as uniforms typically lasted only 6-8 weeks in the trenches. The idea of supplementing the wool stock with dog hair was not a joke, as the British promoted this alternative source of wool as the war lingered on. In an article from 1918, The Grand Rapids Press reported:

The keeping of canine pets by society women may be regarded for the duration of the war at least, as a patriotic duty instead of as a wasteful and demoralizing luxury; but only if the dog be of the long-haired species. It has been demonstrated that an exceptionally high class wool can be spun from the combings of all breeds of long-haired dogs. Sam­ples from chows, Pekingese, poo­dles, Bergers d’Alsace and sheep dogs have been submitted to wool experts who are emphatic In their commendation.

This pamphlet is written from the dog’s perspective and describes his eagerness to donate his wooly fur for the use of knitted socks. The cover illustrates Buttons sitting proudly with the finished socks.

Buttons’ says:

“I’m just a little white poodle, but
I feel so pleased I just want to
tell everyone about it. I was
born in Boston ten years ago last
February, but when I was three
months old I was sold to a gentleman
in Somerville, and as he has
paid my license ever since, I feel
like a real citizen. Of course I can’t
talk, but I listen, and I hear lots of
things about dogs being useless, and
the boys needing all the wool supply…”

“So this is what happened. They trimmed
me carefully and my good friend carded
and spun it into soft wool, and she
said it was lovely. Then my mistress’
sister in the West knitted the
wool into a pair of socks, and I hope
some Sammy will get them to wear
if he needs them next winter.”

 

Buttons begs to help!

Buttons fight song:

“I cannot sew, I cannot knit,
I wish that I were wiser ;
But I resolved to do ” my bit “
To help to down the Kaiser.
The days grew warm, my hair was long
And softer far than chamois ;
They sheared my coat, and spun soft wool
And knitted socks for Sammy.”

–The term “Sammy” was British slang for the US soldiers, referencing the iconic poster imagery of Uncle Sam by James Montgomery Flagg.

 

Description:
Thompson, Josephine. Buttons’ bit :the story of a patriotic dog. Boston : Hudson Print. Co., c1918.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:2034843
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

                     Delegorgue — explorer and exploiter

Louis Adulphe Delegorgue, born in 1814, embarked on lifelong travels at the young age of 16. His greatest passion was for Africa, which supplied him with endless naturalist interests and satiated his tremendous appetite for big game hunting. Delegorgue’s travels in Southern Africa began with his arrival in Cape Town in 1838, and lead to an extensive exploration of the inland territories of Natal and Zululand, where he collected specimens and hunted and killed a large number of animals for sport. He returned to France publishing an account of his travels in South Africa. Untrained and without any fromal scientific education, Delegorgue had an unusual mixture of adventurous, even violent, temperment with a proclivity toward careful and thoughtful observation. He was certainly reckless at times, arrogant, perhaps even duplicitous, collecting numerous specimens for scholarly study but also acquiring ivory and hides for personal gain. In a similar way, he studied indigenous people he met, but concluded that they were inferior to the Europeans, merely suitable to hold and carry his gun during a hunt. Yet, on the other hand, he took the time to compile an extensive dictionary of Zulu vocabulary, the earliest known to be collected and published, even still considered a valuable linguistic resource today. On a later expedition, he died of fever during a trek across the African continent at the young age of 35. While not a household name amongst the African explorers of the 19th century, his legacy remains. The college of his home town was named after him, along with several animal species, including the Delagorgue Pigeon.

 

“hunting” the elephants

“What paltry reason can justify the death and destruction of such beautiful, strong and excellent animals? What are a couple of hundred pounds of ivory compared with the long service which such animals might render to man for generations? I was perfectly conscious of the mischief I was doing but I was a hunter first and foremost.”  trans. from French.

A water buffalo charge

“I dropped flat on the ground, throwing aside my excellent gun, which had now become a useless thing, and I folded my arms one over the other to cushion my forehead.  Inexorably, the buffalo came thundering towards me; I caught a glimpse of his flaring nostrils, tinged with blood; seven more paces and I would be annhilated….”  trans. from French.

Sina des Amazoulous

“Suddenly a very different sound arose; the singing of voices to which my ear was unaccustomed. The circle of warriors parted to reveal the most picturesque sight; that sacred group, the Cafre sultan’s harem, had appeared…The neck was encircled by four copper rings.  The women appeared so much restricted by these that they were unable to turn their heads freely.  I admit that I found this fashion ridiculous- beautiful, perhaps, but even less useful than a copper collar on a dog….” trans. from French.

A witness to the wars of the emigrant Boers with Dingaan

“This was the first encounter in which the Amazoulous had retaliated with firearms. They had take the guns off the settlers killed at Touguela, but their ill-aimed shots produced no visible effect. The thousands of assegais streaking through the air would have inflicted much damage had a closer approach been possible; but the Boers had the advantage, whenever the attack grew particularly menacing in any sector, of being able to rake the vanguard with grapeshot.” trans. from French.

 

Description:
Delegorgue, Adulphe. Voyage dans l’Afrique australe :notamment dans le territoire de Natal dans celui des Cafres Amazoulous et Makatisses et jusqu’au tropique du Capricorne, durant les années 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843 & 1844. Paris : Au Dépot de Librairie, [1847].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10999498
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

 

Lazzaro Pasini (1861-1949), an Italian painter mostly know for his landscapes, traveled to the Eritrean port of Massawa where he deviated from his typical landscape imagery to focus on the life and culture of the native people. Eritrea was the only remaining Italian controlled territory after the epic Battle of Adwa and the subsequent treaty for Ethiopian independence. The battle is noted for its high casualty rate, greater than the Napoleonic Wars, and the disasterous results for the Italian government and its colonial ambitions in that region. As a result, Ethiopia became the first independent state with its sovereinty recognized throughout Europe. In this small publication, Pasini’s sketches were converted into chromolithographs depicting dress, ceremonies, and daily activities. The cover image is a scene of Abyssinians playing the game of mancala outside of their houses.

Goldsmith work

Banquet feast

A hairdresser and women pulverizing burberries

Baptism ceremony

Description:
Usi e costumi dell’Abissinia e dei dintorni di Massaua. Milano : A. Vallardi, [18--].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10996837
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

                             Massive Talipot palm tree of Sri Lanka

Following the initial French military success in Egypt under Napoleon, the British government ordered the Bengal army to be placed under the command of General Abercromby in attempt to expel the remaining French stronghold in Egypt. Louis Pantaléon Jude Amédée, the “Count of Noé”, was amongst the troops sent from Bengal to Egypt. During the French Revolution, he fled to England, eventually joining the British military and receiving a post in the Bengal Army. In this book from 1826, Count Noe offers a primary account of his journey during the 1798-1800 military campaign from India to Egypt. The circumstance of a French royalist serving in the British Army provides a very unique perspective of the turbulent time period, changing politics, and culture clashes from the East to the West. The book comes across more like a travelogue, with geographical information, first-hand descriptions of cities, insight into local customs, fashion, and nature from India, Ceylon, as well as the journey up the Nile to the Battle of Alexandria. This work contains several hand coloured lithographs, including historic views, scenes of manners and costumes of Sepoys, Egyptian Fellahin, the Bedouin Arabs, etc.

Indian Brahmins

Ceylon costumes

Turc costumes

Fellahin

Mamlouks

Snake charmers

Description:
Noé, Louis Pantaléon Jude Amédée. Mémoires relatifs à l’expédition anglaise :partie du Bengale en 1800 pour aller combattre en Égypte l’armée d’orient. [Paris] : l’Imprimé royale, 1826..
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10905945
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

Sun Tzu’s Art of War has become an iconic work, a commonly cited treatise with cross-over interest and application in academia, military, business management, and even popular culture. Sun Tzu (544-496 BC), a Chinese military strategist, revered and influential throughout Asia, was virtually unknown in Western culture for centuries until the French Jesuit missionary, Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, translated his masterpiece into French in 1772. Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (1718-1793), born at Toulon, France, entered the Jesuit order in 1737, ordained in 1746. In 1750, he was sent as a missionary to China where he became a close confident of the Qianlong Emperor, acting as an official translator and spiritual leader. Amiot remained in China for the next 43 years documenting Chinese culture and philosophy. Amiot’s output was staggering, producing works on history, science, music, and art, as well as a biography of Confucius and an authoritative Manchu dictionary. Within his voluminous accounts is a work compiling the essential classics of Chinese military, including the notable Art of War. The Art of War text is comprised of 13 chapters, each one devoted to a different aspect of warfare, such as management, environment, leadership, creativity, etc. Legend has it that Sun Tzu’s work influenced Napoleon in developing his own campaign strategies. The work became even more influential in the 20th century with leaders as diverse as Mao Zedong, General Pervez Musharraf, Vo Nguyen Giap, and General Douglas MacArthur.

In this early printing from 1772, Amiot presents not only Sun Tzu’s classic, but other important works on Chinese warfare, tactics, and philosophy, recorded over the centuries. The work also includes illustrations depicting various military troop exercises, armaments, uniform, costumes, etc.

Organized as follows:

Le premier, Sun-tse
Le sécond, Ou-tse.
Le troisieme, Se-ma-fa.
Le quatrième, Lou-tao.
Le cinquième, Leao-tse.
Le sixieme, Tai-tsoung, Li-ouei-kong

Description:
Amiot, Joseph Marie. Art militaire des Chinois, ou, Recueil d’anciens traités sur la guerre :composés avant l’ere chrétienne, par différents généraux chinois. Paris : Didot l’ainé, 1772. 
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:11523968
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

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