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With this blog we hope to draw attention to the intriguing and remarkably rare items discovered by Harvard Library users during the course of their research. Harvard Library Preservation routinely reviews books returned through circulation, knowing that these returns include a surprising numbers of works that are too deteriorated to survive continued use, and are that too rare and interesting not to share online with the Harvard community, and beyond.

Titles are selected for digitization through various criteria such as rarity, condition, use, research relevance, and/or visual content. We invite you to peruse the titles posted here as well as subscribe to our feeds and see what titles queued for digitization, as well as those already completed and online.

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Thomas Allom (1804–1872) was an English architect, artist, and illustrator, who published books on his travels from Europe to the Middle East and throughout Asia. In 1842, the treaty of Nanking was signed after the British were victorious over the Chinese in what is usually refered to as the “First Opium War”.  The treaty gave the British additional control over Chinese ports, opened trade restrictions, and ceded Hong Kong to British sovereignty. It was during this period of rapid change and increased British presence in China that Thomas Allom published an extravagent 2 volume set on Chinese history and culture. The publication provides a narrative, as well as a mulititude of illustrations on topics such as topography, social customs, history, law and politics. Although Allom traveled extensively, many of his Chinese illustrations were actually based on the works of other artists, including Lieutenant Frederick White, R.M., Captain Stoddart, R.N. and R. Varnham, rather than on his own firsthand accounts in China. The descriptions that accompany Allom’s works reveal the biases and prejudices of the Victorian mindset toward China at the time. Within the second volume, Allom devoted a significant section on aspects of crime in China, including the judicial system and the application of punishment.

Policeman and Prisoner

“The policemen, not enrolled in the military ranks, are described by one, who according to Mr. Montgomery Martin, “has closely studied the subject,” as being “a collection of the very scum of the nation; well versed in all tricks; personaly acquainted with thieves, robbers, and gamblers; initiated in all the mysteries of iniquity; and often partaking largely not only of the bribes, but also in the practice of abomination, in the very haunts of vice.” Their pay is small-from one to two dollars per month; but many serve gratuitously, and some even pay for the appointment -”proof that their situations must be worth something;”

Examination of a Prisoner

“The forms of justice are few and simple. When the police apprehend a Chinese for any offence, he is taken before a magistrate, who is seated at a table (as we see in the engraving.) The prisoner is made to kneel in front of what forms the tribunal of justice—his captor on one side, and another policeman, with the instrument of punishment, on the other. The magistrate has his clerk; but in no case is there either jury or pleading. He hears the witnesses, and passes sentence; intimating the number of blows to be given (if flogging is awarded), by throwing on the ground some of the reeds which are seen in two small boxes at the corner of the tale. If it is an offence punishable by the bamboo, bastinado, or cangue, that punishment is immediately inflicted; if it is more serious, and death or banishment is the sentence, the offender is sent to prison, or to the place of execution.”

Punishment of the Bamboo

“No person in China, whatever his rank, is exempt from the punishment of flogging. As we have stated elsewhere, officers of the army are subject to it. A mandarin who interferes in government matters is fined, and receives besides eighty blows; as does any official who recommends an improper person for promotion; or is guilty of neglect or delay in performing the business of his office. Subordinates of government are examined at the end of each year, and if they are found not to have improved, they receive forty blows. Physicians, who prescribe improperly for their patients, receive one hundred blows; the punishment of domestics for making a noise or disturbance in the imperial palace, is one hundred blows; and their masters (being considered responsible for the behaviour of their servants) receive fifty. The smallest number of blows inflicted is five.”

Punishment of the Rack

“One of the worst features in the criminal procedure of the Chinese is their retention of torture. While religious fanatics and hypocrites have been compelled to lay aside that horrible engine of barbarity, the rack, the Chinese are still permitted to employ it for the purpose of extorting confession; and, as Queen Victoria has interceded for the abolition of death as a punishment of apostasy in Turkey, it is to be hoped she will extend her humane influence to the extinction of an infinitely more cruel practice in China—a country which recent events have taught to respect her power.”

Street Punishment

“The Chinese appear to be fond of public punishments: and we give two engravings, from Chinese drawings in the library of the East India Company, showing two culprits undergoing the sentences awarded by the mandarins. In our first plate there is a group of four figures, all engaged in receiving or administering a penalty awarded, we should say for piracy—when we look at the pigmy banners which are fixed behind the ears of the culprit, being apparently stuck into his head; causing a torture, we should think, at least equal to the flagellation itself. The first figure is striking a gong; this is to call the attention of the public, to whom he announces the crime, and the number of blows with the bamboo the prisoner is to receive. Then follows the prisoner, his hands tied behind him, and his countenance betraying both pain and terror; his feet are bare, and his dress of the thinnest description. The third figure is the flagellator, who brandishes the bamboos, four in number, as if he were intending to lay them on with a will. The fourth figure is a petty mandarin? who has the charge of the prisoner, and is present to see that the punishment is properly inflicted. The ensemble is indicative of an uncivilised and a barbarous regime, little accordant with European habits and modes of thinking in the nineteenth century.”

Street Punishment

“In Plate II, the unhappy culprit is undergoing a species of torture. He is suspended from a cross-pole, supported by two uprights, by a rope passed round his neck and under his arms—his feet being tied together, and drawn up higher than the level of his head, by another. His breast rests on a long bamboo, which is held at each end by a policeman; and it is evident, that by elevating and lowering this pole, letting the prisoner fall upon it each time, the severity of the punishment is greatly increased.”

Description:
China: its scenery, architecture, social habits, &c. illustrated. London : printed and published by the London Printing and Publishing Company, Limited, [1843?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:12136113
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

Eliza Grew Jones, a member of a Baptist missionary to Burma, compiled one of the first known Thai-English dictionaries, completing it in December of 1833.  She was incredibly talented with languages, having even taught herself Greek. She despearately wanted to preach the Gospels, but being a woman, was prohibited. She married missionary Rev. Dr. John T. Jones in 1830, and soon after, sailed for Burma and Siam with the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions. While there, she studied the Thai language, carefully making journal entries of the words, terms, and phrases she learned. In spite of her dedication to this work, it appears that her original dictionary was never published and the wherabouts of her original manuscript is unknown. It is theoroized that the difficulty of printing Thai characters prevented this dictionary from being published. Years later, she created a romanized script of Thai characters to facilitate printing, eventually publishing portions of the Bible in the Thai language. Not long after this accomplishment, Eliza Grew Jones succumbed to Cholera in 1838. All that remains from Jones’ original dictionary is this hand-copied version by Rev. Samuel P. Robbins, completed in May of 1839. This bound manuscript, held by Widener Library, contains more than 8,000 Thai words with English translations, as well as several interesting illustrations. The volume is a unique resource for comparative and historical linguistic research and East-Asian scholarship.

“You will rejoice with me when I tell you
that I have at last finished the Siamese dictionary,
the arrangement and copying of which has been my
chief business in that language, for nearly a year past.
It contains many thousand words, and though it is imperfect,
and will require much correction hereafter, I hope it may be useful”

-Excerpt from Memoir of Mrs. Eliza G. Jones :missionary to Burmah and Siam. Philadelphia : American Baptist Publication Society, 1853.

Eliza Grew Jones entry for the sacred Mount Meru and its surrounding peaks that act like a pair of stairs. According to Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology, Mt. Meru is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes.

 

Description:
Dictionary of the Siamese language containing more than 8000 words : copied from Jones’ latest dictionary : manuscript, 1839.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:4506879
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

It is a common misconception that the automobile was the initial catalyst for the expansion and improvement of the American roadways. In reality, the true impetus for the growth and development of a comprehensive road system was the cycling craze of the late 19th century. The spike in interest and enthusiasm for cycling was due to the introduction of the “safety” bicycle, an advance in design and technology, with equally sized wheels and rubber tires. This innovative bicycle made its appearance across the nation during the years of 1886-88 and was subsequently purchased by millions of American. The safety bicycle was recognized as more comfortable, reliable, and safer for transportation and leisure activities than any of its predecessors. The cycling fad had reached its height by the 1890s, with an estimated 2.5 million riders and the establishment of clubs, fashion-wear, races, parties, and unique jargon. Along with the economic impact of this phenomenon, the various clubs became quite influential politically, seeking significant improvement of existing roadways and a comprehensive plan for building new roads. The “Good Roads Movement”, as it became known at the time, lobbied for greater government involvement at the local, state, and federal levels to collaborate and invest in road infrastructure. According to the Good Roads Movement, the benefits were not for cyclists only, as road improvement would offer farmers more options for transporting produce to markets, resulting in more commerce and greater economic prosperity.

The bicyclists presented a new form of middle-class urban and suburban leisure, with the advent of the “bicycle tour”. Detailed maps and guides were published, catering to the cyclists, pointing out the best roads, local amenities, and highlights. This Massachusetts road book from 1897 is a typical example of the publications being produced at the time. It is described as printed “For the convenience of cyclists and tourists, the books contain an index of towns, showing location, population, and whether they have money order or telegraph offices; also a directory of hotels, bicycle repair shops, etc.” In addition to providing a glimpse into the available roads at that time, the guide also offers fascinating advertisements targeted to the cycling enthusiast.

Kodak’s aim at pairing photography with bicycle touring

shoes2

Ad for a fashionable cycling shoe

The map key for quick access to detailed maps

Description:
The standard road-book, Massachusetts :complete road maps, showing quality of the roads. Boston : National Publ. Co., c1897.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:12111511
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

This short pamphlet, issued after the Americans had entered WWI, was offered as both a humorous and inspirational message to those back on the homefront. The ideals of sacrifice and support for the troops abroad was not limited to the people of the U.S., as Buttons, a poodle from Boston, provided his own small contribution to the war cause. Wool was in constant demand for military and hospital use, and shortages along with high costs were a constant concern for the government as uniforms typically lasted only 6-8 weeks in the trenches. The idea of supplementing the wool stock with dog hair was not a joke, as the British promoted this alternative source of wool as the war lingered on. In an article from 1918, The Grand Rapids Press reported:

The keeping of canine pets by society women may be regarded for the duration of the war at least, as a patriotic duty instead of as a wasteful and demoralizing luxury; but only if the dog be of the long-haired species. It has been demonstrated that an exceptionally high class wool can be spun from the combings of all breeds of long-haired dogs. Sam­ples from chows, Pekingese, poo­dles, Bergers d’Alsace and sheep dogs have been submitted to wool experts who are emphatic In their commendation.

This pamphlet is written from the dog’s perspective and describes his eagerness to donate his wooly fur for the use of knitted socks. The cover illustrates Buttons sitting proudly with the finished socks.

Buttons’ says:

“I’m just a little white poodle, but
I feel so pleased I just want to
tell everyone about it. I was
born in Boston ten years ago last
February, but when I was three
months old I was sold to a gentleman
in Somerville, and as he has
paid my license ever since, I feel
like a real citizen. Of course I can’t
talk, but I listen, and I hear lots of
things about dogs being useless, and
the boys needing all the wool supply…”

“So this is what happened. They trimmed
me carefully and my good friend carded
and spun it into soft wool, and she
said it was lovely. Then my mistress’
sister in the West knitted the
wool into a pair of socks, and I hope
some Sammy will get them to wear
if he needs them next winter.”

 

Buttons begs to help!

Buttons fight song:

“I cannot sew, I cannot knit,
I wish that I were wiser ;
But I resolved to do ” my bit “
To help to down the Kaiser.
The days grew warm, my hair was long
And softer far than chamois ;
They sheared my coat, and spun soft wool
And knitted socks for Sammy.”

–The term “Sammy” was British slang for the US soldiers, referencing the iconic poster imagery of Uncle Sam by James Montgomery Flagg.

 

Description:
Thompson, Josephine. Buttons’ bit :the story of a patriotic dog. Boston : Hudson Print. Co., c1918.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:2034843
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

                     Delegorgue — explorer and exploiter

Louis Adulphe Delegorgue, born in 1814, embarked on lifelong travels at the young age of 16. His greatest passion was for Africa, which supplied him with endless naturalist interests and satiated his tremendous appetite for big game hunting. Delegorgue’s travels in Southern Africa began with his arrival in Cape Town in 1838, and lead to an extensive exploration of the inland territories of Natal and Zululand, where he collected specimens and hunted and killed a large number of animals for sport. He returned to France publishing an account of his travels in South Africa. Untrained and without any fromal scientific education, Delegorgue had an unusual mixture of adventurous, even violent, temperment with a proclivity toward careful and thoughtful observation. He was certainly reckless at times, arrogant, perhaps even duplicitous, collecting numerous specimens for scholarly study but also acquiring ivory and hides for personal gain. In a similar way, he studied indigenous people he met, but concluded that they were inferior to the Europeans, merely suitable to hold and carry his gun during a hunt. Yet, on the other hand, he took the time to compile an extensive dictionary of Zulu vocabulary, the earliest known to be collected and published, even still considered a valuable linguistic resource today. On a later expedition, he died of fever during a trek across the African continent at the young age of 35. While not a household name amongst the African explorers of the 19th century, his legacy remains. The college of his home town was named after him, along with several animal species, including the Delagorgue Pigeon.

 

“hunting” the elephants

“What paltry reason can justify the death and destruction of such beautiful, strong and excellent animals? What are a couple of hundred pounds of ivory compared with the long service which such animals might render to man for generations? I was perfectly conscious of the mischief I was doing but I was a hunter first and foremost.”  trans. from French.

A water buffalo charge

“I dropped flat on the ground, throwing aside my excellent gun, which had now become a useless thing, and I folded my arms one over the other to cushion my forehead.  Inexorably, the buffalo came thundering towards me; I caught a glimpse of his flaring nostrils, tinged with blood; seven more paces and I would be annhilated….”  trans. from French.

Sina des Amazoulous

“Suddenly a very different sound arose; the singing of voices to which my ear was unaccustomed. The circle of warriors parted to reveal the most picturesque sight; that sacred group, the Cafre sultan’s harem, had appeared…The neck was encircled by four copper rings.  The women appeared so much restricted by these that they were unable to turn their heads freely.  I admit that I found this fashion ridiculous- beautiful, perhaps, but even less useful than a copper collar on a dog….” trans. from French.

A witness to the wars of the emigrant Boers with Dingaan

“This was the first encounter in which the Amazoulous had retaliated with firearms. They had take the guns off the settlers killed at Touguela, but their ill-aimed shots produced no visible effect. The thousands of assegais streaking through the air would have inflicted much damage had a closer approach been possible; but the Boers had the advantage, whenever the attack grew particularly menacing in any sector, of being able to rake the vanguard with grapeshot.” trans. from French.

 

Description:
Delegorgue, Adulphe. Voyage dans l’Afrique australe :notamment dans le territoire de Natal dans celui des Cafres Amazoulous et Makatisses et jusqu’au tropique du Capricorne, durant les années 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843 & 1844. Paris : Au Dépot de Librairie, [1847].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10999498
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

 

Lazzaro Pasini (1861-1949), an Italian painter mostly know for his landscapes, traveled to the Eritrean port of Massawa where he deviated from his typical landscape imagery to focus on the life and culture of the native people. Eritrea was the only remaining Italian controlled territory after the epic Battle of Adwa and the subsequent treaty for Ethiopian independence. The battle is noted for its high casualty rate, greater than the Napoleonic Wars, and the disasterous results for the Italian government and its colonial ambitions in that region. As a result, Ethiopia became the first independent state with its sovereinty recognized throughout Europe. In this small publication, Pasini’s sketches were converted into chromolithographs depicting dress, ceremonies, and daily activities. The cover image is a scene of Abyssinians playing the game of mancala outside of their houses.

Goldsmith work

Banquet feast

A hairdresser and women pulverizing burberries

Baptism ceremony

Description:
Usi e costumi dell’Abissinia e dei dintorni di Massaua. Milano : A. Vallardi, [18--].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10996837
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

                             Massive Talipot palm tree of Sri Lanka

Following the initial French military success in Egypt under Napoleon, the British government ordered the Bengal army to be placed under the command of General Abercromby in attempt to expel the remaining French stronghold in Egypt. Louis Pantaléon Jude Amédée, the “Count of Noé”, was amongst the troops sent from Bengal to Egypt. During the French Revolution, he fled to England, eventually joining the British military and receiving a post in the Bengal Army. In this book from 1826, Count Noe offers a primary account of his journey during the 1798-1800 military campaign from India to Egypt. The circumstance of a French royalist serving in the British Army provides a very unique perspective of the turbulent time period, changing politics, and culture clashes from the East to the West. The book comes across more like a travelogue, with geographical information, first-hand descriptions of cities, insight into local customs, fashion, and nature from India, Ceylon, as well as the journey up the Nile to the Battle of Alexandria. This work contains several hand coloured lithographs, including historic views, scenes of manners and costumes of Sepoys, Egyptian Fellahin, the Bedouin Arabs, etc.

Indian Brahmins

Ceylon costumes

Turc costumes

Fellahin

Mamlouks

Snake charmers

Description:
Noé, Louis Pantaléon Jude Amédée. Mémoires relatifs à l’expédition anglaise :partie du Bengale en 1800 pour aller combattre en Égypte l’armée d’orient. [Paris] : l’Imprimé royale, 1826..
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10905945
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

Sun Tzu’s Art of War has become an iconic work, a commonly cited treatise with cross-over interest and application in academia, military, business management, and even popular culture. Sun Tzu (544-496 BC), a Chinese military strategist, revered and influential throughout Asia, was virtually unknown in Western culture for centuries until the French Jesuit missionary, Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, translated his masterpiece into French in 1772. Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (1718-1793), born at Toulon, France, entered the Jesuit order in 1737, ordained in 1746. In 1750, he was sent as a missionary to China where he became a close confident of the Qianlong Emperor, acting as an official translator and spiritual leader. Amiot remained in China for the next 43 years documenting Chinese culture and philosophy. Amiot’s output was staggering, producing works on history, science, music, and art, as well as a biography of Confucius and an authoritative Manchu dictionary. Within his voluminous accounts is a work compiling the essential classics of Chinese military, including the notable Art of War. The Art of War text is comprised of 13 chapters, each one devoted to a different aspect of warfare, such as management, environment, leadership, creativity, etc. Legend has it that Sun Tzu’s work influenced Napoleon in developing his own campaign strategies. The work became even more influential in the 20th century with leaders as diverse as Mao Zedong, General Pervez Musharraf, Vo Nguyen Giap, and General Douglas MacArthur.

In this early printing from 1772, Amiot presents not only Sun Tzu’s classic, but other important works on Chinese warfare, tactics, and philosophy, recorded over the centuries. The work also includes illustrations depicting various military troop exercises, armaments, uniform, costumes, etc.

Organized as follows:

Le premier, Sun-tse
Le sécond, Ou-tse.
Le troisieme, Se-ma-fa.
Le quatrième, Lou-tao.
Le cinquième, Leao-tse.
Le sixieme, Tai-tsoung, Li-ouei-kong

Description:
Amiot, Joseph Marie. Art militaire des Chinois, ou, Recueil d’anciens traités sur la guerre :composés avant l’ere chrétienne, par différents généraux chinois. Paris : Didot l’ainé, 1772. 
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:11523968
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

In 1858, Douglas Bly, a physician from Rochester, New York, invented and patented an artificial leg that incorporated new technology, materials, and design to better mimic the movements of the human leg. His knowledge of anatomy informed his approach, which was focused on providing a more natural gait to the disabled. The most important improvements were related to his ball and socket ankle, which were made of an ivory ball resting within a rubber socket. This ankle design not only provided a smoother and less jarring support system, but also allowed for the natural inversion and eversion of the human foot, giving mobility inward and outward.

The outbreak of the Civil War led to an extraordinary number of disabled soldiers with amputations in the tens of thousands, resulting in an ovewhelming demand for prosthetics. The competition amongst manufaturers of artificial limbs was great as each tried to gain a lucrative or exclusive government contract. Though a doctor by trade, Douglas Bly was a surprisingly persistent and effective self-promoter, making sure his invention was well publicized across the country, with particular pitches to the US Government. Though it was recognized as a superior prosthetic, the US government determined the cost of Bly’s leg too great to supply as the preferred limb replacement for soldiers. As a compromise to Dr. Bly, soldiers were given the option to pay the additional cost “out of pocket” if they opted for Dr Bly’s advanced model. During the Civil War, he published a simple pamphlet that was  basically an “infomercial” pointing out the failings of his competitors and presenting a slew of endorsements by satisfied customers.

Formerly the manufacture of artificial legs has been left entirely to common mechanics, and those who have undergone amputation, but who have little or no knowledge of anatomy ; consequently, the construction of artificial legs has been merely mechanical, and not anatomical. They have imitated some of the motions of the natural leg quite well, but others not at all. Indeed it could hardly be expected that any one but ananatomist should  be able to model a leg so close to nature, as to imitate allthe varied motions of the natural leg.

Though the perfection of my Anatomical Leg is truly wonderful, I do not want every awkward, big-footed, or gambreled shanked person, who always strided or shuffled along in a slouching manner with both his natural legs, to think that one of these must necessarily transform him or his movements into specimens of symmetry, neatness and beauty, as if by magic, as Cinderella’s frogs were turned into sprightly coachmen. They are just what I recommend them to be—neither more nor less.

- Dr. Douglas Bly

Satisfied customer, Henry Eitt of Rochester

Diagram of Dr. Bly’s invention

Description:
Bly, Douglas. A new and important invention, by Douglas Bly, M.D. :by frequent dissections, Dr. Bly has succeeded in embodying the principles of the natural leg in an artificial one, and in giving it lateral, or side motion at the ankle, the same as the natural one. Rochester, [N.Y.] : Curtis, Butts, 1862.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:11156844
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

                       A peep into the inner sanctum

 

Dating back to the Neolithic Age, the winter soltice has been observed, revered, and worshiped as an iconic moment in the earth’s annual cycle. Ancient physical remains around the globe attest to the allure of the winter solstice for both religious celebration and practical planning for the growing season. In Britain, the primary axes of Stonehenge appears to have been carefully aligned on a sight-line pointing to the winter solstice sunset. The ongoing mystery and obsession with Stonhenge, along with speculation on its supposed purpose, should be credited to William Stukeley (1687 –1765), a harbinger of modern archeological study and a pioneer in the restoration and preservation of ancient monuments and sites. Stukeley, a friend and biographer of Isaac Newton (acknowledged with creating the “apple falling” story), was a fascinating character in his own right.  An English gentleman, scholar, historian, physician, freemason, and druid, Stukeley surveyed Stonehenge in the 1720s and published his principal work on the ancient monument in 1740. Although Stukeley incorrectly theorized that the monument was part of the druidic religion, he was the first to recognize and describe the alignment of Stonehenge with the solstice. His meticulous observations and thorough survey remain significant and valuable in the history of the monument.

 

“Stonehenge stands not upon the very summit of a hill, but pretty near it, and
for more than three quarters of the circuit you ascend to it very gently from
lower ground. At half a mile distance, the appearance of it is stately and awful,
really august. As you advance nearer, especially up the avenue, which is
to the north-east of it, (which side is now most perfect) the greatness of its con-
tour fills the eye in an astonishing manner… Nothing in nature could be of a more
simple idea than this vast circle of stones, and its crown-work or corona at top ;
and yet its effect is truly majestic and venerable, which is the main requisite
in sacred structures. A single stone is a thing worthy of admiration…  ”                                      
-   William Stukeley

 

Remains of Stonehenge

Inward view of Stonehenege

View of Stonehenge from Bush Barrow site.

Description:
Stukeley, William. Stonehenge, a temple restor’d to the British druids. London : Printed for W. Innys and R. Manby, at the West End of St. Paul’s, 1740. 
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10937246
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

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